Earlier, he had ordered the Soviet representative to the United Nations to boycott the Security Council because it refused to accept the newly formed Communist People's Republic of China into the United Nations. He established communist governments throughout Eastern Europe, and in 1949 led the Soviets into the nuclear age by exploding an atomic bomb. By 1928 he had removed all of his enemies and became the sole leader of the Soviet Union. By the next year, the Soviet Army was liberating countries in Eastern Europe, even before the Allies had mounted a serious challenge against Hitler at D-Day. In 1924 however, Lenin died, and within a few years Josef Stalin replaced him. How Joseph Stalin Starved Millions in the Ukrainian Famine, How Photos Became a Weapon in Stalin's Great Purge. Once in power, he collectivized farming and had potential enemies executed or sent to forced labor camps. Cities were renamed in his honor. Stalin was eventually denounced by his successor, Nikita Khrushchev, in 1956. By Joel Day PUBLISHED: 13:32, Wed, Jul 22, 2020 Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. That is an easy one, though I think it might be too late. Nadezhda committed suicide in her early 30s. For a time, the revolutionaries supported a provisional government, believing a smooth transition of power was possible. The post of General Secretary of the party, which was held by Stalin, became the most important post in the Soviet hierarchy. Joseph Stalin did not mellow with age: He prosecuted a reign of terror, purges, executions, exiles to labor camps and persecution in the postwar USSR, suppressing all dissent and anything that smacked of foreign–especially Western–influence. In 1961, as part of the de-Stalinization process, the city, located along Europe's longest river, the Volga, became known as Volgograd. This essentially reduced the peasants back to serfs, as they had been during the monarchy. What is totalitarianism? The Allies responded with the massive Berlin Airlift, supplying the city and eventually forcing Stalin to back down. As a boy, Stalin contracted smallpox, which left him with lifelong facial scars. … All Rights Reserved. When the Nazi blitzkrieg struck in June 1941, the Soviet Army was completely unprepared and immediately suffered massive losses. Millions of farmers refused to cooperate with Stalin’s orders and were shot or exiled as punishment. But like many people in higher politics, he was at the same time quite ordinary — a small man placed in extraordinary circumstances. Most of the people were peasants, and there was very little industry. https://www.history.com/topics/russia/joseph-stalin. Updated August 22, 2019 Joseph Stalin (December 18, 1878–March 5, 1953) was an important leader in the Russian Revolution who became the head of the Communist Party and dictator of the Soviet state known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). His body was embalmed and preserved in Lenin’s mausoleum in Moscow’s Red Square until 1961, when it was removed and buried near the Kremlin walls as part of the de-Stalinization process initiated by Stalin’s successor Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971). As the tide of war slowly turned in the Allies' favor, Roosevelt and Churchill met with Stalin to discuss postwar arrangements. Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault. In 1902, he was arrested for coordinating a labor strike and exiled to Siberia, the first of his many arrests and exiles in the fledgling years of the Russian Revolution. Best known as the "Elephant Man," Joseph Carey Merrick has been the subject of many medical studies, documentaries and works of fiction. Joseph Conrad was an author who is remembered for novels like 'Heart of Darkness,' which drew on his experience as a mariner and addressed profound themes of nature and existence. Spell. In February 1917, the Russian Revolution began. His Red Army helped defeat Nazi Germany during World War II. Learn. In the years following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he rose to become dictator of the Soviet Union, using a combination of manipulation and terror to destroy his opposition. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Both British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt argued that such an action would result in heavy casualties. After escaping from exile, he was marked by the Okhranka, (the tsar's secret police) as an outlaw and continued his work in hiding, raising money through robberies, kidnappings and extortion. Joffree rose to general of division in 1905 and then chief of the French general ...read more, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin is generally considered one of history’s worst tyrants, responsible for millions of civilian deaths. You had to ask your father to beat you up every day. Any resistance was met with swift and lethal response; millions of people were exiled to the labor camps of the Gulag or were executed. Starting in the late 1920s, Joseph Stalin launched a series of five-year plans intended to transform the Soviet Union from a peasant society into an industrial superpower. When he was in his 30s, he took the name Stalin, from the Russian for “man of steel.”. Stalin had been suspicious of the West since the inception of the Soviet Union, and once the Soviet Union had entered the war, Stalin had demanded the Allies open up a second front against Germany. Joseph Stalin. Additionally, Stalin built a cult of personality around himself in the Soviet Union. What is totalitarianism? In 1901, he joined the Social Democratic Labor Party and worked full-time for the revolutionary movement. While there he began secretly reading the work of German social philosopher and “Communist Manifesto” author Karl Marx, becoming interested in the revolutionary movement against the Russian monarchy. Stalin continued to increase his influence in the party, and by the end of the 1920s he became the sole dictator of the USSR, defeating all his political opponents. Ivan the Terrible was the first tsar of all Russia. Joseph Stalin rose to power as General Secretary of the Communist Party in Russia, becoming a Soviet dictator after the death of Vladimir Lenin. Increasingly, Stalin appointed his loyalists to the Politburo. After Lenin died in 1924, Stalin was in a position to remove all other contenders for leadership. His had filled the administration of the Party with people who were loyal to him. However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign. In 1906, Stalin married Ekaterina “Kato” Svanidze (1885-1907), a seamstress. In this capacity, Goebbels was charged with presenting Hitler to ...read more, At the height of the 1932-33 Ukrainian famine under Joseph Stalin, starving people roamed the countryside, desperate for something, anything to eat. He was handsome, charismatic and a favorite of Lenin. Before it could be executed, however, Stalin died on March 5, 1953. Spell. During these years, Stalin had continued to move up the party ladder, and in 1922 he became secretary general of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, a role that enabled him to appoint his allies to government jobs and grow a base of political support. By October, the revolution was complete and the Bolsheviks were in control. What year did he become absolute, undisputed dictator? As the war progressed, Stalin participated in the major Allied conferences, including those in Tehran (1943) and Yalta (1945). The poorest of the people were starving, due to a shortage of food. STUDY. Stalin at first betrayed his fellow communists in China … What started in 1917 Russia, became a global revolution, taking ...read more, The question of where Russia begins and ends—and who constitutes the Russian people—has preoccupied Russian thinkers for centuries. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Stalin reversed the Bolshevik agrarian policy by seizing land given earlier to the peasants and organizing collective farms. At age 7, he contracted smallpox, leaving his face scarred. In 1948, Stalin ordered an economic blockade on the German city of Berlin, in hopes of gaining full control of the city. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. He demanded the Allies open a second front against Germany, which they agreed to in the spring of 1944. Stalin also became involved in various criminal activities, including bank heists, the proceeds from which were used to help fund the Bolshevik Party. Soviet history books were rewritten to give him a more prominent role in the revolution and mythologize other aspects of his life. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2014 turned these concerns into a big “Russian question” ...read more, French military commander Joseph Joffre (1852-1931) studied at the École Polytechnique. Flashcards. His father was a shoemaker and alcoholic who beat his son, and his mother was a laundress. By now, the British and Americans were suspicious of Stalin's intentions and wanted to avoid Soviet involvement in a postwar Japan. After Lenin died in 1924, Stalin eventually outmaneuvered his rivals and won the power struggle for control of the Communist Party. During the 1930s and ’40s he promoted certain aspects of Russian history, some Russian national and cultural heroes, and the Russian language, and he held the Russians up as the elder brother for the non-Slavs to emulate. madisontriolo. However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign. The period known as the Great Purge eventually extended beyond the party elite to local officials suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. By 1927, Stalin was the unquestioned ruler of the Soviet Union. Stalin grew up poor and an only child. When the resolution to support South Korea came to a vote in the Security Council, the Soviet Union was unable to use its veto. Stalin was a dictator of the Soviet Union starting from 1922-1953 (Mazelev, 1999). By the time anyone realized what he had done, it was too late. government which take total control over every aspect of public and private life. It was during this time that he adopted the name Stalin, meaning "steel" in Russian. Perhaps unsurprisingly, his only daughter, Svetlana, found it extraordinarily difficult growing up in the Kremlin under his care. Steel. ” Belarus, and its artillery surrounded Leningrad abdicated the throne was! 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